Erecting industrial park facilities Creating industrial area Promoting industrial districts Creating industrial enclaves Establishing zones of exclusion in developing countries
Industrial estates are primarily designed to improve production efficiency through the co-location of manufacturing plant and services but many of them also pose a substantial threat to the environment. Their size and number are expanding, particularly in countries undergoing fast industrialization.
Industrial estates are now common features of the urban landscape. The International Development Research Council records more than 12 000 estates around the world, ranging in size from 1 to more than 10 000 hectares.
These enclaves and zones usually have nothing but negative effects on developing countries' economies and serve ultimately as bases for transnational corporations to spread their activities among various countries in order to avoid having to comply with domestic laws and international standards. Such establishments have usually proved to be unstable because the parent company can decide, for commercial, economic or political reasons, to move its subsidiaries to other countries. The purpose of such practices is to evade the economic laws of the countries concerned, thereby constituting a violation of the right to development of the populations of those countries.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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