Sustainable development has an environmental, a social and an economic dimension, all of which need to be adequately balanced in order to avoid disharmony between these, in part, conflicting dynamics. In order to create a sustainable society, the elements of society, such as ethics, law, government and economics, must cooperate and coordinate their activities on a sustainable basis. National sustainable strategies adopted may be more effective if permitted to function on an integrated basis.
Sustainable development, as a long-term, global necessity, can probably not be achieved without concerted local, national and international, and global action. This requires not only progress but constant and critical review of understanding of the interrelationships among the differing and conflicting aspirations and needs of individuals and societies. Some critical problems are: (1) the valuation of economic growth as a positive and desirable line of development continues unabated, in spite of a growing recognition that the earth is finite; (2) the increasing magnitude of humankind in relation to Gaia (the earth as an ecological identity) threatens the continuing viability of the planet, eg through the greenhouse effect; and (3) preservation of biodiversity. In spite of numerous pronouncements in support of initiatives to overcome these problems, this has up to now mainly been lip service; the necessary political steps have not been taken.
This strategy features in the framework of Agenda 21 as formulated at UNCED (Rio de Janeiro, 1992), now coordinated by the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development and implemented through national and local authorities. Agenda 21 recommends establishing effective combinations of economic, regulatory and voluntary (self-regulatory) approaches.
This strategy features in the framework of Agenda 21 as formulated at UNCED (Rio de Janeiro, 1992), now coordinated by the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development and implemented through national and local authorities.
Agenda 21 recommends adopting integrated approaches to sustainable development at a regional level, including transboundary areas, subject to the requirements of particular circumstances and needs.
****** FROM DUPLICATE Implementation ****** The World Resources Institute ['2050 Project'] was launched in 1993 to define steps for transition to sustainability in an integrated manner.
The shift in environmental policy in rich industrial countries from the struggle against the negative impacts of too-high resource use to the struggle against high resource use in itself demands changes in the prices of commodities. Price increases in primary resources thus become understood as working in the best interests of the consumption countries as well as the production countries. It must be avoided that third countries, such as poor countries which import raw materials, become victims. Here a system of tradable user rights may offer a solution.