Reducing emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere
Decreasing carbon dioxide emissions to atmosphere Controlling carbon dioxide emissions
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has recommended a 60% reduction in CO2 output in order to stabilize CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, [ie] a reduction from the current emissions of 6 m tonnes per annum to 2.4 m tonnes.
A 1998 study by the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) titled [Approaching the Kyoto Targets: Five Key Strategies for the United States], shows how the United States can achieve over 60 percent of the carbon emissions reduction necessary for meeting the Kyoto Protocol target through actions in the United States that will save consumers and businesses money. The five strategies stimulate widespread energy efficiency improvements in all sectors of the economy. They are: (1) New appliance and equipment efficiency standards and related voluntary programmes (2) Public benefit trust fund as part of electric utility industry restructuring (3) Fuel economy standards and market incentives to improve vehicle fuel economy (4) Removing barriers inhibiting greater use of combined heat and power systems (5) Power plant efficiency standards. It is estimated that these five initiatives could cut U.S. carbon emissions in 2010 by 310 million tons per year - 17 percent of the emissions expected in 2010 given business-as-usual trends and policies Furthermore, the emissions reductions could nearly double by 2020 as efficiency improvements continue to be made and more appliances, buildings, vehicles, and power plants are replaced.
According to a 1997 report, Britain was one of only two or three countries likely to meet its Rio commitments - an unexpected bonus after the collapse of the coal industry.
Contrary to the rather unrealistic commitments of the 1994 [Rio Convention], it is our estimate that energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in 2010 will be more than 30 percent higher than they were in 1990.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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