Man in his quest for knowledge, health and safety has a need to use animals where there is a reasonable expectation that the result will be to extend knowledge or be to the overall benefit of man or animal, just as he uses them for food, clothing and as beasts of burden.
Article 2 of the [European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for Experimental and other Scientific Purposes] (Strasbourg 1986) provides for animal experimentation in the following terms: "A procedure may be performed for one or more of the following purposes only and subject to the restrictions laid down in this Convention: a) i) avoidance or prevention of disease, ill-health or other abnormality, or their effects, in man, vertebrate or invertebrate animals or plants, including the production and the quality, efficacy and safety testing of drugs, substances or products; ii) diagnosis or treatment of disease, ill-health or other abnormality, or their effects, in man, vertebrate or invertebrate animals or plants; b) detection, assessment, regulation or modification of physiological conditions in man, vertebrate and invertebrate animals or plants; c) protection of the environment; d) scientific research; e) education and training; f) forensic inquiries."
1. Man has a moral obligation to respect all animals and to have due consideration for their capacity for suffering and memory.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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