Future studies comprise a broad range of interlinked activities which include: (a) conjectural, speculative and imaginative descriptions of the human future; (b) exploratory forecasts based on methodological extrapolation of past and present developments into the future; and (c) prescriptions, namely normatively oriented future projections in which explicit value assertions and choices are made about how a specific future may be viewed.
2. The creation of better futures largely depends on a higher level of futures consciousness. It considers the following aspects crucial: no single culture should predetermine the future, all cultures should be actively involved; political institutions, political parties and popular social movements should focus more clearly on the future in their present actions; education must become more explicitly a future-oriented activity; participation in future-creating decisions and activities in the family, at work, in national and international organizations is essential; equality of opportunity and other forms of social justice are central to development of desirable futures.
1. Future forecasting places responsibility for events outside of human control, thus eroding people's integrity.