Developing air pollution control technology for urban industry and transportation
Developing appropriate pollution control technology on the basis of risk assessment and epidemiological research for the introduction of environmentally sound production processes and suitable safe mass transport.
Most urban air pollution comes from the combustion of fossil fuels, in motor vehicles and for industrial processes, heating and electricity generation, but some also comes from incinerators, petrochemical plants and refineries, metal smelters and the chemicals industry. Some primary pollutants can combine to form even more damaging secondary pollutants. For example, ozone and other photochemical oxidants are formed when hydrocarbons react with nitrogen oxides and oxygen in the presence of sunlight. Tropospheric ozone is one of the major components of urban smog, a growing problem in cities around the world.
This strategy features in the framework of Agenda 21 as formulated at UNCED (Rio de Janeiro, 1992), now coordinated by the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development and implemented through national and local authorities.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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