This strategy features in the framework of Agenda 21 as formulated at UNCED (Rio de Janeiro, 1992), now coordinated by the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development and implemented through national and local authorities.
Agenda 21 recommends:
2. Further development of international environmental law, in particular conventions and guidelines, promotion of its implementation, and coordinating functions arising from an increasing number of international legal agreements, [inter alia], the functioning of convention secretariats, taking into account the need for the most efficient use of resources, including possible co-location of secretariats established in the future. The support for and concentration of UNEP capacity in this field is recommended.
3. Surveying the review, assessment and fields of action in international law for sustainable development.
In 1989, 24 heads of state from around the world agreed that a High Authority should be established to set an internationally binding policy framework for behaviour by governments and the private sector in the field of environment, which should be accorded regulatory and enforcement powers, subject to control by the International Court of Justice. This agreement, reached in a top-down approach, is yet to be implemented.
In addressing transboundary pollution, one of the tools is enforcement of a country's national legislation regarding the export of wastes, banned chemicals, unregistered pesticides, and an enforcement of international agreements and treaties. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is now working with the intelligence community to address the worldwide smuggling of CFCs. Enforcement is an area where the necessary instruments are not in place and international cooperation is missing.