One of the objectives of the Geneva Protocol concerning Specially Protected Areas of Mediterranean Importance (SPAs) is the preservation of habitats critical to the survival, reproduction and recovery of endangered, threatened or endemic species of flora and fauna. The more recent Barcelona Protocol extends the obligations under the Geneva Protocol. It requires that a new list be drawn up of SPAs that: (1) are of importance for conserving the components of biological diversity in the Mediterranean; (2) contain ecosystems specific to the Mediterranean area of the habitats of endangered species; (3) are of special scientific, aesthetic, cultural or educational interest. By March 1998, 216 SPAs had been established under the Geneva Protocol. Also action plans for the conservation of marine turtles, monk seals and cetaceans have been approved by the Parties.