Giving advice and encouragement in religious, moral, and perhaps theological matters.
Among Moroccan women a [shuwefa] or spirit medium can provide a forum for finding solutions to the problems of women's daily lives. The spirit mediums are considered genuine religious specialists. The belief in spirits is supported by the Qur'an, and people see no contradiction in a practicing Muslim woman also calling on and sacrificing to spirits. It is significant that the [shuwefa] advises the woman to carry out both Islamic and spirit rituals. These dialogues illustrate that the [shuwefa] neither condemns nor condones the consultees' behaviour. She recommends procedures that will help them in their emotional distress, and these activities will then enable the women to make their own decision. The women consultees put their trust in the shuwefa who in turn helps the patients to reconsider the rules that govern their lives. In addition to direct advice, the [shuwefa] is a living example of a woman beyond the rules. She rejects marriage as a necessity and uses her vocation as a source of income. She is a professional in complete control of her spirit performances, and is an authority in religious ritual. Although [shuwefa] are stigmatized and have a negative reputation as independent women, they are nevertheless seen as experts in solving women's problems. They establish this reputation and authenticity through their performance during a consultation session. In these ways, by advice and example, the [shuwefa] helps in the renegotiation of gender roles in Morocco.
Advice of any kind involves no action on the part of the giver or receiver.
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