The [Convention on Biological Diversity] (CBD) recognizes the sovereign rights of States over their natural resources and that the authority to determine access to genetic resources rests with the national governments and is subject to national legislation. Notwithstanding, it requires that each Contracting Party shall endeavour to create conditions to facilitate access to genetic resources for environmentally sound uses by other Contracting Parties and not to impose restrictions that run counter to the objectives of biodiversity conservation. Access, where granted, should be on mutually agreed terms and subject to prior informed consent of the Contracting Party providing such resources. In addition, any scientific research based on genetic resources provided by other Contracting Parties should be developed with the full participation of, and where possible in, the originating State. The results of research and development and the benefits arising from the commercial and other utilization of genetic resources shall be shared in a fair and equitable way with the Contracting Party providing such resources, upon mutually agreed terms.
South Africa both depends upon genetic material from elsewhere and contains an extraordinary diversity of indigenous genetic material which has the potential to be used in a range of commercial and environmental applications. As is the case for other countries in the world, South Africa is heavily dependent upon material from elsewhere for its agriculture, horticulture, and forestry industries, as well as for the biological control of pest species and thus requires continued access to the broader genepool of genetic resources located elsewhere in the world. This requires continued coordination and cooperation with other countries.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.