Ensuring access to adequate water services
Context: In situations where there is no water supply, it is women and older girls who usually provide it. Medical research has documented cases of permanent damage to women's health directly attributed to carrying water, among them spinal and pelvic deformities and degenerative rheumatism. More immediate problems include exposure to water-borne diseases, chronic fatigue and the threat of miscarriage among pregnant women. In some parts of rural Africa, women may expend as much as 85% of their daily energy intake fetching water; incidence and severity of anaemia increases during the dry season when up to 63% of pregnant women and 40% of non-pregnant women are anaemic.
Implementation: This strategy features in the framework of Agenda 21 as formulated at UNCED (Rio de Janeiro, 1992), now coordinated by the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development and implemented through national and local authorities.
Type Classification: E: Emanations of other strategies