The first step in the energy-conservation process is an energy audit, since planning and accurate measurements are the key to successful energy management. Energy audits generate easy-to-implement, low-cost improvements that often pay for the audit immediately, increase awareness of conservation opportunities and form a basis for informed action. It is recommended that auditing programmes be initiated or strengthened to attain these benefits.
Heat recovery from industrial processes is an excellent energy-conservation practice. Recognizing that heavy losses are incurred in process industries owing to throttling flows from pumps and compressors, it is recommended that variable-speed drives be used in lieu of throttling, wherever possible. Payback periods for such substitutions have been demonstrated to be very short.
It is recommended that co-generation - the joint production of heat and power for industrial and community needs using various fuels (including biomass) - be promoted and utilized as an effective technology to improve energy efficiency. Typically, losses can be reduced from 60 to 20% by co-generation, compared with a conventional condensing cycle. It is further recommended that, through appropriate legislation, co-generation be given economically viable conditions for power exchange with the public utility.