This strategy features in the framework of Agenda 21 as formulated at UNCED (Rio de Janeiro, 1992), now coordinated by the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development and implemented through national and local authorities. Agenda 21 recommends strengthening international, including regional, cooperation and coordination.
Since the Hague Declaration of the North Sea Conference in 1990, substantial further progress has been made in converting the political initiatives launched by the Bremen, London and The Hague Declarations into provisions of international and European Union law. These new and comprehensive requirements have transformed the approach to the protection of the North Sea in many fields by establishing or substantially extending legally binding frameworks, such as the OSPAR Convention. A marked feature of these frameworks is their wide scope, requiring thorough reviews of the relevant aspects of the environment and the development of comprehensive programmes.