Environmental Issues Papers (EIPs) have been prepared by the World Bank for all borrowing countries. They are intended as internal discussion documents to heighten awareness of environmental issues, delineate responsibility for addressing them in country operations, and achieve a consistent approach to their solution. They have been used to identify a wide range of environmental problems and common underlying themes, such as perverse economic incentives, insecure property rights and the lack of institutional capacity to tackle major problems. Conceptually, the EIPs are the first step in developing a coherent environmental strategy for a country. They are often followed by a progressively more detailed study (the National Environmental Action Plan) and culminate in the implementation of environmental projects and policies.