Synonyms: Reducing underparticipation
Context: Participation as a deepened form of democracy is one very common use of the word. In the Skeffington report from the UK called 'People and Planning', a central passage states that participation is '...the act of sharing in the formulation of policies and proposals. Participation involves doing as well as talking, and there will be full participation only when the public is able to take an active part throughout the plan-making process...' The 'Guide to Effective Participation', developed in a research project by the Rowntree Foundation in the UK, describes a five-rung ladder of participation: (1) information (merely telling people what is planned); (2) consultation (offering some options, listening to feedback, but not allowing new ideas); (3) deciding together (encouraging additional options and ideas, and providing opportunities for joint decision-making); (4) acting together (different interests deciding together what is best and forming a partnership to carry it out); (5) supporting independent community interests (whereby local groups or organizations are offered funds, advice or other support to develop their own agenda within guidelines).
Type Classification: C: Cross-sectoral strategies