1. The increase in alien smuggling is considered a matter of grave concern by many governments, especially those at source or destination. Hundreds of thousands are transported illegally each year. They are subjected to life-threatening conditions during transit, and upon arrival are forced into indentured servitude or criminal activities to pay the smugglers. The latter violate domestic and international law, participate in extortion and murder. Criminal legislation needs to be enacted and enforced with a view to promoting more effective international cooperation.
2. Tightening national border controls may actually reduce national security by fuelling the illegal traffic in migrants by criminal gangs also associated with drugs and gunning running.