In 1975, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Programme (UNESCO) launched the International Environmental Education Programme (IEEP), to promote environmental education for all age groups both within and outside the formal education system. Over 150 countries have been involved in the IEEP programme. Through it, some 12,000 educators and trainers have been trained. The IEEP newsletter [Connect] reaches more than 20,000 educators and educational institutions. In 1977, the International Conference on Environmental Education developed guidelines and programmes urging schools and universities to promote environmental studies both as a subject in its own right and as a facet of other subjects. The Moscow Congress on Environmental Education and Training took place in 1987. UNEP and UNESCO have published the International Strategy for Action in the Field of Environmental Education and Training for the 1990s. It serves as a basis for national strategies in various countries.
A World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF) Education Programme has organized teacher-training courses and produced a wide range of materials for educational use. Distributed materials to schools include an environmental alphabet for primary schools, posters and wall charts covering local issues. WWF is setting up a national network in Zambia, to aid teachers and help them spread information about environmental problems and solutions.
In 1974, Robert Johannes, trained in marine biology in the USA, came to Palau to study fish behaviour. His book is a series of reflections on how people learn about fish and fishing. He spent 16 years in a laboratory in the USA. His Palauan counterparts in Tobi learned by living in a place where knowing about fish behaviour mattered for daily sustenance. Johannes says that in his sixteen months in Palau he learned more that was new to marine science than in his previous sixteen years of conventional research.