Including national health impact assessments to identify the vulnerability of populations and subgroups and the appropriate health impacts to be monitored (and the enhancement of national capacity to undertake such monitoring and assessment as necessary).
Human-induced changes in the global climate system and in stratospheric ozone pose a range of health risks. Irrespective of any actions that might soon be taken to reduce or halt these environmental changes, human populations will be exposed to some degree of climate change and increased ultraviolet irradiation over the coming decades. There is therefore a need to consider how these global change processes will affect human health, how to improve research and monitoring, how to minimize adverse health impacts, and how to achieve coordination, sharing of information, and participation in wider international efforts in this area.
Many of the impacts of climate change on health can be avoided through the maintenance of strong public health programmes to monitor, quarantine, and treat the spread of infectious diseases and respond to other health emergencies as they occur. Although air-conditioning and public health programmes may impose additional costs on the public and private sectors, they are preferable to the impacts on human health that would otherwise occur.
Air pollutants from fossil fuels currently damage health: when air pollution is eased, prompt health benefits follow. Globally, it has been estimated that about 8 million deaths between the year 2000 and 2020 could be avoided by strategic climate policies, as opposed to a "business-as-usual" scenario.