Agenda 21 recommends that developing countries should be assisted at national and local levels in adopting an integrated approach to the provision of water supply, energy, sanitation, drainage and solid waste management; and that external funding agencies should ensure that this approach is applied in particular to environmental infrastructure improvement in informal settlements based on regulations and standards that take into account the living conditions and resources of the communities to be served.
The programme seeks to promote a multi-agency collaborative approach to the provision of services and management of water resources in peri-urban areas, and to contribute to sustaining the economic vitality of these rapidly expanding areas while safeguarding their ecosystems and improving health and the quality of the living environment for low income groups. The programme themes are: protection of peri-urban water resources; equity and efficiency in water consumption between and among competing sectors (agriculture, domestic and industrial); institutional reforms and human resources development; and broad-based partnerships among public and private sectors and communities.
The Community Infrastructure Upgrading Programme of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, was set up under the Sustainable Dar es Salaam Project (SDP). Inadequate trunk infrastructure had prevented the efficient management of the city's growth and development, resulting in approximately 75% of all housing units being developed in unplanned and unserviced settlements. A working group prepared a two point strategy of action to (1) encourage community groups to form associations to define their priority needs, mobilize local human and financial resources, decide affordable standards of provision, seek technical advice, participate in infrastructure construction and accept management responsibilities for operations and maintenance and (2) encourage the city, central government departments and utility companies to respond to such community participation and to form a technical support team of community development officers, planners, surveyors, civil and sanitary engineers. Through this programme, communities are contributing their ideas, energy and money for roads, water and sanitation projects.