Werlhof's disease

Chronic thrombocytopenia
Werlhof-Wichmann disease

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), also known as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura or immune thrombocytopenia, is a type of thrombocytopenic purpura characterized by a low platelet count in the absence of other causes, and accompanied by a red-purple rash called purpura. It leads to an increased risk of bleeding. ITP manifests in two distinct clinical syndromes: an acute form observed in children, and chronic conditions observed in adults. The acute form often follows an infection and typically resolves within two months, while chronic immune thrombocytopenia persists for longer than six months and its specific cause is unknown.

ITP is considered an autoimmune disease, as antibodies against several platelet surface structures (antigens) can be detected.

Diagnosis of ITP involves identifying a low platelet count through a complete blood count, a common blood test. However, since the diagnosis relies on excluding other potential causes of a low platelet count, additional investigations, such as a bone marrow biopsy, may be necessary in certain cases.

For mild cases, careful observation may be sufficient. However, in instances of very low platelet counts or significant bleeding, treatment options may include corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, anti-D immunoglobulin, or immunosuppressive medications. Refractory ITP, which does not respond to conventional treatment or shows constant relapse after splenectomy, requires treatment to reduce the risk of significant bleeding. Platelet transfusions may be used in severe cases with extremely low platelet counts in individuals experiencing bleeding. In some cases, the body may compensate by producing abnormally large platelets.

Source: Wikipedia

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