Traffic congestion results from thousands of unintegrated, linear, incremental responses to urban development pressures. To provide homes for citizens local governments often adopt a land use planning approach that permits one neighbourhood block to be built after another, each developed on a case-by-case basis with little overall integration of human activities such as residing, shopping, recreating and working. The roads that connect these neighbouhoods are also constructed without a long-term, integrated transportation concept. This kind of urban growth in many cities has resulted in urban sprawl, extreme dependency upon the private automobile to travel at all hours to places of residence, work, and recreation, as well as extreme traffic congestion.
2. Traffic congestion now ensures that it takes longer to cross central London than in the days of the horse and cart.