Unreceptive structures for citizen leadership

Undeveloped potential of informal leadership
Leadership inhibited by agencies
Centralized formal leadership
Many nations have found it necessary to centralize official leadership for the sake of building new national unity and identity. Intensification of efforts at nation-wide development brings the necessity for informal leadership at the village level; but such unofficial, complementary leadership has not forcefully emerged in many Third World suburban communities. Leadership patterns, as they have emerged in the village, relate to a relatively small group. The absence of broad leadership in business, education, social welfare and other arenas of society overburdens the present leaders and hinders community-wide engagement.
While current leaders may provide essential social stability and guidance to a village, the means must be found to nurture a broader spectrum of leadership among established residents, new residents, women and educated youth. The young men, especially those who have vision and the experience of a modern education, often leave the village to find other arenas in which to exercise their creative energies and talents. Structural vehicles for citizen engagement and decision-making are still irregular and do not cover the full spectrum of decisions that residents now demand.
Although it is increasingly evident that full utilization of the leadership skills of all community residents is a prerequisite for progress, the outdated social methods, unfocused planning and ineffective meetings in many areas are indications that latent local leadership has neither been identified nor motivated to assume leadership roles.
Aggravated by 
(F) Fuzzy exceptional problems