Unequal parliamentary constituencies

Legislative seats which are apportioned according to population and administrative districts may give unequal representation. Where candidates from different parties contest an election within the limits of a constituency, minority interests may suffer, never winning an election, but having a considerable proportion of votes overall. Unequal distribution of legislative seats may lead to political conflict as a result of exploitation, or to apathy and alienation. In certain countries this problem is countered by a system of proportional representation.
In the UK, for example, the Ulster Unionist party (whose members are concentrated in one region, Northern Ireland) have virtually the same number of seats in the House of Commons as have the Liberal and Social Democratic parties combined (with votes approaching those of the main Conservative and Socialist parties, but with a wide regional distribution of members).
(D) Detailed problems