Disproportionate influence of some individuals on national policy-making
It is possible for a limited number of wealthy individuals to make use of networks of holding companies, family ties and other special relationships in order to maintain effective control over the major corporations and decision-making centres of a national economy. The individuals related in this way may be in government, military and banking positions as well as in public or private corporations. Because of corporation secrecy on these matters, it is very difficult to determine the extent of such control and to hold the controllers responsible for policies which they attempt to implement to the disadvantage of those outside their privileged circle.
It has been claimed that only 100 people are behind most economic decisions taken in France, that four companies decide the industrial development of Italy, and that three inter-related families virtually control the economy of Belgium.