Underdevelopment of mining and quarrying industries

Inadequate development of small-scale mining
Mining and quarrying are vital sectors in many developing countries, but because the industry is often dominated by foreign transnationals, and may also be located in isolated rural areas, it remains largely underdeveloped. The bulk of production is exported in a raw or semi-processed state and as a result, the sector has not developed into a dynamic factor for industrial development.
(E) Emanations of other problems