Humans continue to illegally hunt [Pteronura brasiliensis] for pelts. Indigenous groups use the meat and pelt of [P. brasiliensis]. It is controlled as a pest as its ravenous appetite is often blamed by logging and mining workers for a lack of fish/protein available in some south American river systems.
[Pteronura brasiliensis] is endemic to south America. It is found throughout the Orinoco, Amazon, and La Plata River systems, ranging from east of the Andes mountains in northern Argentina north to Venezuela and Columbia. [Pteronura brasiliensis] lives in lentic freshwater rivers, lakes and creeks. On occasion, they are seen in agricultural canals and reservoirs of small dams, although they prefer gently sloped river banks and secluded areas with overhanging vegetation.
[Pteronura brasiliensis] is considered as "Vulnerable" by the IUCN. CITES lists the species as "Appendix 1.