Seen from an international perspective, nations that are behind in technological development are not so because of lack of research and development funding, or that the firms doing the development are too small or that these firms are not protected and adequately assisted by their governments. The returns on R and D investment are too low. Low demand for innovation reduces incentives to innovate. Weak technical infrastructure produces fewer young people who can innovate, produces inadequate links between universities and industry which block information flow. Some countries expend heavily on government research institutions which have neither the incentives of the market place nor the demand for academic excellence of the university, thus reducing innovation. Regulatory costs for new inventions often discourage innovation.