Diseases spread by stray dog populations include rabies, hydatid disease and, to a lesser extent, anthrax, pasteurellosis and leptospiroses. Human injuries inflicted by stray dogs include bites, which may lead to infection, fractures and sprains in old people and children and road accidents. In Peru, there are at least 80,000 attacks a year, and in Brazil there are hundreds of thousands. Most of the victims are children.
Stray dogs may damage property, particularly gardens, with their faeces; and litter the streets by overturning dustbins, which also increases the risk of disease and encourages rats. Domestic animals may be injured or killed by packs of stray dogs. Barking and howling causes a nuisance to the community. Origins of stray dog populations include lost dogs, abandoned dogs, dogs which are sheltered by people but not owned by them, dogs bred from stray dogs. The size of the stray dog population varies in accordance with the social and cultural characteristics of the human population, nature of the area, and season of the year. In the UK, some 90,000 strays dogs are destroyed each year.
2. Dog Dog owners must be made responsible for their animals' behaviour and they should pay the price when they attack people. In Costa Rica, dog owners who fail to make their animals behave can be sent to prison for three years.
3. Because of the current breakdown of urban law-enforcement, more and more people feel forced to keep guard dogs; many of these dogs escape and help to swell the already startlingly large feral dog population. If city authorities are to be ready to combat this threat, it is imperative to find out much more about the ecology and behaviour of the canine community.