The Kurds, numbering an estimated 20 million, are commonly seen as the world's largest nation without a state. About 10 million are in Turkey, 4 million in Iraq, 5 million in Iran and a million in Syria. There may be another million in the former Soviet Union. About 400,000 of the 1.8 million guest workers from Turkey living in Germany are of Kurdish origin. Kurds believe they are descended from Noah. They speak several sub-dialects of Persian. They have never had an independent state, although in the Middle Ages many Kurdish princes had their own fiefdoms. President Woodrow Wilson of the USA promised the Kurds a state in 1918 but was frustrated by the British, French and Turks. The present Federal Government of Iraqi Kurdistan is the closest to a state yet. The population is landlocked between empires in Iran and Anatolia. Its 3.5 million people have a prime minister, a government, foreign embassies, an army of sorts, borders, even passport stamps; but they have no currency, no flag and no international recognition.
Okinawa is considered by some to be an independent nation.
2. IANA, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, had seemed to recognize East Timor as a country despite long-term Indonesian occupation, as they assigned it the tp top-level domain. The IANA is not in the business of deciding what is and what is not a country. The selection of the International Standards Association (ISO) 3166 list as a basis for country code top-level domain names was made with the knowledge that ISO has a procedure for determining which entities should be and should not be on that list.