The ultimate form of egocentricity is the philosophic formulation, involving consideration of metaphysics, epistemology, ontology and psychology, that the whole of the realities of other persons and external objects and worlds have no existence independent of the cognizing self and its mental states. In its modern form in developed countries, it is frequently associated with the addiction to mysticism, occultism, drugs, altered states of consciousness, social alienation, and personal selfishness in seeking peak experiences, hedonistic or otherwise. Not surprisingly, among the large numbers of people espousing popular varieties of the solipsist creed, and who have no formal training in philosophy, this denial of reality is linked with a denial of authority, and with negative values concerning social institutions and organizations. The solipsist may also have personality disorders, the most common of which are schizoid tendencies, a lack of emotional development, and an inability to relate to other people.
Solipsism is a characteristic of pseudo-mysticism and a distortion of the philosophy of idealism. It has led to doctrines of ethical subjectivism that deny reality to values such as goodness; and to latitudinarianism, a critical paralysis which views all opinions and creeds indifferently as being of equal worth or of no worth. It lends itself to utopian collectivist social philosophies, to anarchy, and to the loss of liberty and justice, since it accords no reality to personal identity and national sovereignty and to the properties, rights and obligations that pertain to them.
(F) Fuzzy exceptional problems