Smoking during pregnancy and breast-feeding

The foetus and the breast-fed baby can become the victim of a mother who smokes. Indeed, smoking has immediately bad effects on pregnant women, their foetuses, and on nursing mothers. It increases the risk of miscarriage and stillbirth and may result in low birth-weight and backward babies. If the mother smokes during pregnancy, the new-born child weighs an average 200-250g less than it would if she did not smoke. In terms of statistical risks, it seems that the probability of a woman who smokes five to ten cigarettes a day will give birth to a child weighing less than 2.5kg is 50% more than that for a woman who does not smoke. The corresponding increase in probability for a woman who smokes twenty or more cigarettes a day is 130%. Both the quality and quantity of breast milk may be reduced if the mother smokes, the risk of sudden infant death syndrome is increased, and various aspects of the child's physical growth, intellectual and emotional development and behaviour may be affected.
(E) Emanations of other problems