Financial losses to shippers, carriers and consignees from cargo seizures are a risk that adds to the costs of shipping. Consignees in developing countries who pay shipping costs may be uninsured against certain kinds or all kinds of seizure. Port authorities, natural customs agents, public health agents and police are all frequently empowered for cargo seizure. In addition, banks and other creditors represented by marshals or other public enforcement officials, may also effect seizure. Cargo seizure reason may range from governmental political actions to impounding of illegal or hazardous shipments, or to illegal acts of cargo detention or appropriation by governmental or non-governmental organizations, or piracy.