Limited seasonal transportation
Inadequate winter roadways
Many rural communities in developing nations are isolated both from outlying hamlets and from the remainder of the country for several months each year. Hills and ridges, impassable mud tracks, water courses, snow and ice can prevent travel completely at some times of the year. Such conditions can last for up to four months, with consequent falls in school attendance, sharp rises in the cost of consumer goods, and dangerous shortages of vital food supplies.