Resource-intensive packaging

Energy-intensive packaging
The packaging demanded for products requires large amounts of energy, in addition to the chemicals, wood and plastics needed to produce boxes, padding, bags and decorative materials which increase the environmental cost. It has been estimated that over 360 billion BTUs of energy could have been saved in the USA if the 1986 per capita packaging consumption had remained at the per capita levels of 1958.
The total energy costs, including production and transport, of the full life-cycle of the container are not being taken into account. A milk bottle would have to be refilled 13 times to have the same environmental impact as a one-way milk carton. This is achieved in the UK where milk bottles are collected by milkmen, but not in countries where bottles are returned by the consumer.
(E) Emanations of other problems