Conflict between church and state
Conflict between religion and state
Separation of church and state
Conflicts may arise over the amount of influence religion has in social and political affairs, or on direct ideological grounds (if the government is totally opposed to religion). Repression, trial and imprisonment of clerics and lay leaders may precede confiscation of sacred properties, or restrictive legislation. It may also lead to civil war, or international conflict. This conflict is most visible in developing countries where religion exerts powerful influence.
Every religion, with the growth of adherents, becomes a political force. Persecutions of the early Christians, and of the Jews in Europe, were undertaken from this perspective. Religious/political conflicts may take place from local levels (where sects attempt to control local government) right up to the international level of deliberations and resolutions of intergovernmental bodies which may be opposed by leaders of major faiths.
There remain those who, while they do not approve the separation of Church and State, think nevertheless that the Church ought to adapt herself to the times and conform to what is required by the modern system of government. Such an opinion is sound, if it is to be understood of some equitable adjustment consistent with truth and justice; in so far, namely, that the Church, in the hope of some great good, may show herself indulgent, and may conform to the times in so far as her sacred office permits. But it is not so in regard to practices and doctrines which a perversion of morals and a warped judgment have unlawfully introduced. Religion, truth, and justice must ever be maintained; and, as God has intrusted these great and sacred matters to her office as to dissemble in regard to what is false or unjust, or to connive at what is hurtful to religion. (Papal Writings, Libertas, 1888).