Refusal of broadcasting licence
Refusal by the authorities, governmental or private, to grant licences to broadcasting stations, film or theatre clubs may serve the same function as censorship. Licences may be distributed as a matter of governmental policy (particularly with broadcasting) and may be issued in such a way as to support the administration. Alternatively, broadcasting licences may be distributed on the basis of commercial performance. The authorities may refuse to renew licences where broadcasting stations have not met their requirements. Films in many countries require a licence to be shown and this may be refused on the grounds of immorality or obscenity, and private film and theatre clubs may be closed on these grounds if they do not comply with the law. Refusal of licence for the media may result in cultural stagnation, indoctrination and conformism, may serve to strengthen government control or political dictatorship, or may give rise to a counter culture.