Political revolution

Radical political change may be brought about by either violent or non-violent means, as distinct from coups d'Etat which may simply exchange one political leader or dictator for another or for a clique. Revolution may occur on the basis of class or race (as in decolonization). It may result in economic and ideological revolution and repression of the old order. The more violent the revolution, the more intense the ensuing repression is likely to be. Political revolution may cause social and economic disruption and adaptation problems, or resistance, counter revolution and civil war.

A civil war or other resort to violence by a country's citizens in order to change the government may be termed a revolution. From a political point of view, it is a revolution if the system itself is changed and not simply the officials (as often is the case in a "coup d'Etat").

In the twentieth century some revolutions that might be cited (excluding wars of independence) are those of the Communists in Russia, China, Yugoslavia and Cuba, and that of the Islamic fundamentalists in Iran. A number of others (for instance, Ethiopia) can be listed, mainly Communistic. There are also revolutionary movements whose motives are linguistic or ethnic - as the Basque and Quebecôis among others - or specifically racial.
When, in the course of human events, people are oppressed by their governments, and by the structural violence perpetuated by privileged classes; when their voice is not heard and they are mocked by token changes and platitudinous political promises; when their rights to adequate food and shelter, to medical care and employment, and to freedom of speech are ignored; then direct and forceful action against the criminal classes of rulers, bureaucrats, the rich and all their minions is required to restore justice. Revolution means return; judicious revolution with a minimum of violence means a return to the spirit of the laws of the nation. The elimination of central government by full anarchy, therefore, is the most spiritual form of revolution.
(F) Fuzzy exceptional problems