Remote basic services
Geographically remote facilities
Absence of essential services
Many rural communities are only on the outer fringes of the services which are now a necessity for participation in contemporary society. For example: electricity is costly and may be available only privately rather than on a general, domestic basis; water may be distributed, but it is usually untested, and may be parasitically contaminated; outdoor washing areas result in stagnant open pools of waste water; there is rarely any central means of garbage disposal and most homes rely on open pits for garbage. Inoperative health outposts, distant medical services and inaccessible dental care facilities drain the vitality of the people and reinforce the life style of backward isolation. In addition, the daily expenditure of energy required to function with such rudimentary services severely minimizes productive output.