Pantheism is the view that all is God and God is all. Reality is one in essence and form and this unity is rational and divine. God is in the world and of it; everything partakes of the nature of God.

An error of modernism identified as the belief that: There exists no Supreme, all-wise, all-provident Divine Being, distinct from the universe, and God is identical with the nature of things, and is, therefore, subject to changes. In effect, God is produced in man and in the world, and all things are God and have the very substance of God, and God is one and the same thing with the world, and, therefore, spirit with matter, necessity with liberty, good with evil, justice with injustice. (Papal Allocution, Maxima Quidem, 9 June 1862).


1. Pantheism rejects any explanation of the origin of the universe and ignores any difference between God and nature. As such, it avoids the issue of the "I" in relationship with the "Thou". The "I" is simply a part of the "Thou". The human self loses its freedom and immortality. Contemplation replaces action; quietism is encouraged. Wrong and right become absolutely relative and belief in and hope for progress is lost. The sense of sin, awareness of transgression and effort of amendment become illusionary.

2. Modern pantheism is a religious philosophy with deep roots in the pagan and shamanistic traditions of many cultures, but which in modern form is a faith that embraces scientific discovery as a method of spiritual enrichment. By denying personality to deity, simply places ultimate value in the material world itself. It does not pretend to be value free. For modern pantheists, nature is the source of religious inspiration, with the ever-changing understanding of it required by modern science, not the human inventions of churches and bibles, or covens and ritual incantations.

(F) Fuzzy exceptional problems