China has vigorously promoted a programme to resettle ethnic Chinese in Tibet, obliging workers in state enterprises to move to a region notorious for its remoteness, altitude sickness and harsh climate, but with the offer of returning to any city of their choice in China after eight years. From 1993, Chinese leaders have been imposed on district and village councils in Tibet. The situation has developed to the point that the Chinese in 1993 outnumbered the Tibetans within Tibet. In Lhasa the Tibetans are outnumbered two to one. There has been long-standing bitterness over the expropriation of black farmers in the early days of apartheid and the sale of the land to whites. The constitution of South Africa renegotiated in 1993 provides for restitution of land to communities or individuals who had been dispossessed under any racial law dating back to 1913.