The first type would seem to follow the general principles of the assembly line. The second type which is essentially based on the automatic feed-back of information into a mechanical system, can be conceived as a development of engineering devices of the sort represented by the so-called fly-ball governor in the steam engine, but it has become eminently more applicable since the introduction of electronics. The third type goes even further in replacing certain functions of the human being, in so far as it acts increasingly according to the functioning of the human brain. It can therefore be used in fields of activity which until now were only to a very small extent mechanized. A typical use is for the recording, co-ordination and analysis of information in the administrative field.
2. Firms introducing automation spend 90% of the effort on technical and financial issues and less than 10% on the human and organizational ones. Usually, they do not pay enough attention to job redesign, machinery layout, training and skill bonuses.
3. While our political leaders have embraced the information age, extolling the virtues of cyberspace and virtual reality, they have, for the most part, steadfastly refused to address the equally important question of how to ensure that the dramatic productivity gains of the new high-tech global economy will be shared broadly among every segment of the population. Up to now, those productivity gains have been used primarily to enhance corporate profit, to the exclusive benefit of stockholders, top corporate managers and the emerging elite of high-tech knowledge workers. If the trend continues, chances are that the widening gap between the haves and have nots is only going to lead to greater social unrest and more crime and violence in every country.