Emergence of international media monopolies
Control by transnationals of the global communications industry
International monopoly of the media
Abuse of dominant position in the media market
Monopoly of media outlets such as newspapers, film, television, radio, and satellite broadcasting, may be on a national or international level. Monopoly may be commercial or governmental, in which case it may be used directly or indirectly for propaganda purposes. Commercial monopoly may restrict freedom of expression according to the tolerance of its advertising clientele, may produce material only for the majority audience, or may use broadcasting to favour commercial interests. Media monopoly may facilitate repression and political control, and the continuance of existing inequalities, injustices and exploitation.