2. Parental preferences rather than medical technologies are the main factor in determining average family size. The availability of modern methods of contraception is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for keeping population growth under control. Fertility in Europe decreased substantially in the 1800's, before modern contraceptives were available. Further, availability of modern methods does not always translate into use; less than 10% of the couples surveyed in Pakistan in the 1970's were using modern contraceptives, although family planning services have been strongly promoted there. In Bulgaria and Pakistan the contraceptive usage rates were the same, but the number of live births per woman was 6 in Pakistan and 2.2 in Bulgaria.
3. Population control is totally unnecessary in light of the trend of the human species having grown from a few hundred thousands in wretched poverty to 5 billion in relative wealth all the while living longer.