Ineffective economic structures in industrial nations

The economic structures of industrial nations are failing to close the gap between their economic potential and their actual performance. Protectionism, including agricultural, industrial and other subsidies reduce competition in national and international markets for goods and services. High marginal taxes, currency restrictions, financial market regulations, discriminatory tax rates applied to similar transactions, and excessively steep progressive income tax rates restrict capital flows. Centralized collective bargaining, employment regulation, social security restrictions, and government control of training and education have created rigid labour markets.
(D) Detailed problems