Energy conservation can be defined as the strategy for reducing energy requirements per unit of industrial output or individual well-being without affecting the progress of socio-economic development or causing disruption in life style (Schipper, 1976).
In temperate developed countries most energy is used in heating and lighting industrial and domestic buildings. Industrial processes, transport and agriculture are the other main users. During the 1970s it was demonstrated that substantial savings could be achieved through appropriate building technologies and the use of energy-efficient equipment for heating, air-conditioning and lighting.
Most goods could and should be both manufactured and made to work more efficiently. Policies should be designed to encourage efficient use of energy. These would probably have to incorporate a variety of energy-savings measures, including fiscal measures, regulations and standards, encouragement of action by common means (public transportation, total energy systems), public education and research and development.