Furthermore, in many countries it is difficult to recruit adequate staff for the collection of refuse, and increasing traffic congestion creates difficulties and delays in transport. Inadequate storage and collection arrangements can create health and safety hazards and neighbourhood blight. On-site incinerators, which can substantially reduce refuse volume, can also cause an unacceptable degree of air pollution unless they are properly designed and operated. Kitchen grinders help to reduce the volume of putrescible refuse to be collected, but still leave up to 85% or more of the total volume to be collected, treated, and disposed of.
Results from an annual survey of Waste Collection Authorities, Waste Disposal Authorities and Unitary Authorities show that over 90 per cent of waste handled by local authorities in England and Wales in 1996/7 arose from households and that, on average, each household produces almost 24 kg of waste per week. The survey results also show that landfill continues to be the most widely used method of disposal, accounting for around 84 per cent of municipal wastes in 1996/7.