Each province has 30% of its forest allocated for concessions to convert into plantations. Such land conversion has been identified as the major culprit for the fires. The largest fires can be found on the largest concessions. According to the Indonesian Forum for the Environment.
The fall in prices of forest products exacerbates the problem as the plantations attempt to expand output and cut costs including using fire for land clearance. Meanwhile the government lacks the resources for enforcement.
The extent of biomass burning has increased significantly over the past 100 years. It is now recognized as a significant global source of atmospheric emissions, contributing more than half of all the carbon released into the atmosphere (see table left). The burning of tropical savannahs is estimated to destroy three times as much dry matter per year as the burning of tropical forests (Andreae 1991). Only in the past decade have researchers realized the important contributions of biomass burning to the global budgets of carbon dioxide, methane, nitric oxide, tropospheric ozone, methyl chloride and elemental carbon particulates.