A hypercane is a hypothetical class of extreme tropical cyclone that could form if sea surface temperatures reached approximately 50 °C (122 °F), which is 15 °C (27 °F) warmer than the warmest ocean temperature ever recorded. Such an increase could be caused by a large asteroid or comet impact, a large supervolcanic eruption, anthropogenic climate change, or a large submarine flood basalt. There is some speculation that a series of hypercanes resulting from the impact of a large asteroid or comet contributed to the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs. The hypothesis was created by Kerry Emanuel of MIT, who also coined the term. Additionally, it is also speculated that many planets that could orbit red dwarf stars, if they have liquid water, would permanently experience hypercanes on their sunlit faces due to the effects of tidal locking. This could potentially challenge any life forms that were to live there.