When the female is infertile, the problem of inducing conception is addressed by a number of remedial approaches ranging from pharmaceutical treatments and microsurgery, to transferring fertilized embryos from one woman to another or from test-tube or [in vitro] cultivation. There is also the resort to the use of a surrogate mother. Human breeding problems thus give rise to commercial services such as sperm banks, egg banks, surrogates and their agents, and embryo transfer services. Infertility is particularly hard on women, for whom it attaches as a stigma, and may result in their being ostracized, abandoned, or divorced. Stress on the infertile young married female may lead to mental illness and suicide.