Homosexual marriage

Name(s): 
Trans-sexual marriage
Gay marriage
Nature

Same-sex marriage, also known as gay marriage, is the marriage of two people of the same sex or gender. As of 2022, marriage between same-sex couples is legally performed and recognized in 33 countries, with the most recent being Mexico, constituting some 1.35 billion people (17% of the world's population). In Andorra, a law allowing same-sex marriage will come into force on 17 February 2023.

Adoption rights are not necessarily covered, though most states with same-sex marriage allow those couples to jointly adopt as other married couples can. In contrast, 34 countries (as of 2021) have definitions of marriage in their constitutions that prevent marriage between couples of the same sex, most enacted in recent decades as a preventative measure. Some other countries have constitutionally mandated Islamic law, which is generally interpreted as prohibiting marriage between same-sex couples. In six of the former and most of the latter, homosexuality itself is criminalized. There are records of marriage between men dating back to the first century. In the modern era, the first civil government to knowingly issue a marriage license to a same-sex couple was Blue Earth County, Minnesota, United States in 1971.

The first law providing for marriage equality between same-sex and opposite-sex couples was passed in the continental Netherlands in 2000 and took effect on 1 April 2001, after being signed by Queen Beatrix. The application of marriage law equally to same-sex and opposite-sex couples has varied by jurisdiction, and has come about through legislative change to marriage law, court rulings based on constitutional guarantees of equality, recognition that marriage of same-sex couples is allowed by existing marriage law, and by direct popular vote, such as through referendums and initiatives. The most prominent supporters of same-sex marriage are the world's major medical and scientific communities, and human rights and civil rights organizations, while most prominent opponents are religious fundamentalist groups. Polls consistently show continually rising support for the recognition of same-sex marriage in all developed democracies and in some developing countries.

Scientific studies show that the financial, psychological, and physical well-being of gay people are enhanced by marriage, and that the children of same-sex parents benefit from being raised by married same-sex couples within a marital union that is recognized by law and supported by societal institutions. Social science research indicates that the exclusion of same-sex couples from marriage stigmatizes and invites public discrimination against gay and lesbian people, with research also repudiating the notion that either civilization or viable social orders depend upon restricting marriage to heterosexuals. Same-sex marriage can provide those in committed same-sex relationships with relevant government services and make financial demands on them comparable to that required of those in opposite-sex marriages, and also gives them legal protections such as inheritance and hospital visitation rights. Opposition to same-sex marriage is based on claims such as that homosexuality is unnatural and abnormal, that children are better off when raised by opposite-sex couples, that recognition of same-sex marriage violates freedom of religion and undermines religion, that legalizing same-sex marriage would lead to polygamous and incestuous marriages being legalized, that legalization would undermine the institutions of marriage and the family, that same-sex couples cannot procreate, and that the recognition of same-sex unions will promote homosexuality in society. The first two claims are refuted by scientific studies, which show that homosexuality is a natural and normal variation in human sexuality, and that sexual orientation is not a choice. Many studies have shown that children of same-sex couples fare just as well as the children of opposite-sex couples; some studies have shown benefits to being raised by same-sex couples.

Source: Wikipedia

Background 
Homosexual marriages are not yet legal, but contestably so. In 1993, Hawaii's Supreme Court ruled that the ban on same-sex unions probably violates the constitution of the USA. However, the legal hurdles to gay marriage are nothing compared to the social and religious obstacles. Although attitudes toward gay rights have generally become more liberal, a 1992 Washington Post poll found that 70% of Americans oppose same-sex marriage. Only 53% oppose homosexual relationships between consenting adults. For conservative Christians, the belief that marriage exists for procreation means that homosexual unions are unnatural. Secular social conservatives tend to agree that marriage is between a man and a woman -- societies privilege heterosexual marriage principally because it creates enduring mother-father child-raising units. Homosexual marriages, whatever their advantages, do not serve this purposes.
Incidence 
In Washington in 1993, 1,500 homosexual couples participated in a "wedding" complete with ministers and rice (even though the vows were not binding). A number of US cities now entitle the unmarried partners of municipal employees -- gay or straight -- to certain spousal benefits. An American lesbian who wished to adopt her lover's son received a positive review from a social worker but was turned down because she was not married. A court ultimately granted the adoption. In 1994 the European Parliament offered support for the idea of homosexual marriage and adopting children. The practice is already accepted in a number of countries in Europe. Several cities in Italy permit the public celebration of gay and lesbian marriage by local officials.
Claim 
In 1994 the Pope claimed that homosexual marriage was a serious threat to the future of the family and society. Marriage, which undergirds the institution of the family, is constituted by the covenant whereby a man and a women establish between themselves a partnership for their whole life. Only such a union can be recognized and ratified as a marriage in society. Other interpersonal unions which do not fulfil the above conditions cannot be recognized.
Counter-claim 
Fifty percent of heterosexual marriages now end in divorce. What is so sacrosanct about that ?
Strategy(ies) 
Type 
(E) Emanations of other problems